Peru has a rich history full of ancient cultures and civilizations. It is believed that the oldest civilization of the Americas has first settled here. Societies living in the Andes were depending on agriculture and used many for that time modern techniques. The most important society of Peru were the Inca’s, with their capital in Cuzco. In the 15th century The Inca’s grew to become the most powerful and largest empire of the pre-Columbian America.
Today Peru is focussing on sustaining economic growth, while profiting from the increased tourism in the country. The different historic cultural influences make Peru of this day a very interesting destination.
Full Name: Republic of Peru
Capital City: Lima
Time Zone: GMT/UTC -5
Electricity: 110-120V 60Hz
Country Dialing Code: 054
Population: 28,220,764 ( 2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.3%
Religions: Over 80% Roman Catholic, 14% Other
Area: total: 1.285.216 sq km,
Land boundaries: Ecuador and Colombia
Peru is a diverse country, including 11 ecological regions. The country has a huge variety of scenery thanks to its geography, which also provides it with a wide range of natural resources. The country has 3 main regions according to the traditional method of dividing the country by altitude: coast, mountains and jungle.
Government type: Republic
Independence Day: 28 July 1821
The fertile valleys spring from the rivers that flow down from the Andes mountain range itself, as opposed to the lower-lying sierra, and into the ocean. The coast has a warm climate, without extreme heat or cold but with high humidity and dense fog that makes it feels cold in winter. In the summer there is some fog while temperatures reach 30°C (86° F). In the north, the coast is hot almost all year round, with a short rainy period in November and December. The central and southern coast has two distinct seasons, winter (April to October) and summer (November to March)
The Peruvian Andes mountain range dominates the landscape and contains various ecological regions and altitudes. The northern Andes are lower and more humid than the rest of it, while the central Andes are the tallest, and it is here where you find the country’s highest peak, Huascarán, at 6,768 meters above sea level. The southern Andes are wider, and are also known as the altiplano, or high Andean plateau. The sierra has two seasons: summer (April to October) with sunny days, cold nights and little rain – this is the perfect time to visit; and winter (November to March), when it rains heavily. During the day, temperatures can reach 24°C (75° F).
Located in the east, this is a vast region of plains covered by vegetation in the Amazon River, which begins at the confluence of the Marañón and Ucayali rivers. This region consists of highland jungle – the mountain’s eyebrows, (over 700 meters above sea level), which is characterized by its cloud forests, and lowland jungle (less than 700 meters above sea level). Like the sierra, the jungle has two distinct seasons. From November to March it rains frequently, while from April to October it is fairly dry, making this the ideal time to visit as the rivers subside and the roads are easily accessible. There is high humidity all year round. Occasionally, between May and August, there are “friajes” or “surazos”, cold snaps caused by winds from the extreme south of the continent, during which the temperature can fall to between 8 and 12°C. (43° and 53° F).
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