If you’re planning a Peru trip, it’s important that you get a little background information about the country, its history, its people, and anything else that might prove useful or that might enrich your stay in this beautiful country. We have put together this brief guide to Peru to help anyone planning a holiday; if you have any follow-up questions, please feel free to contact us directly.
Peru has a rich history full of ancient cultures and civilizations. It is believed that the oldest civilization of the Americas first settled here. Societies living in the Andes for centuries depended on agriculture to survive and they used many modern techniques that they developed separately from Europe, Africa, and Asia. The most important society of Peru was the Incan people, whose capital city was in Cuzco. It’s why, to this day, our most popular tours visit Cuzco, such as our Classic Peru Tour and our Best of Peru Tour. In the 15thcentury, the Incas grew to become the most powerful and largest empire of pre-Columbian America. The Spanish invasion of Peru decimated the Incan empire with a combination of war and European diseases for which the natives had no immunity.
Today, Peru is focussing on sustaining economic growth, while profiting from the increased tourism to the country. The different historic and cultural influences in the country make Peru a fascinating, unique travel destination.
Full Name: Republic of Peru
Capital City: Lima
Time Zone: GMT/UTC -5
Electricity: 110-120V 60Hz
Country Dialing Code: 054
Population: 32,17,000 ( 2017 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.2%
Religions: Over 80% Roman Catholic, 14% Other
Area: total: 1.285.216 sq km,
Land boundaries:Ecuador and Colombia
Peru is a diverse country, including 11 ecological regions. The country has a huge variety of scenery thanks to its geography, which also provides it with a wide range of natural resources. The country has three main regions according to the traditional method of dividing the country by altitude: coast, mountains, and jungle.
Government type: Republic
Independence Day: 28 July, 1821
The fertile valleys spring from the rivers that flow down from the Andes mountain range, as opposed to the lower-lying sierra, and into the ocean. The coast has a warm climate, without extreme heat or cold but with high humidity and dense fog that makes it feel cold in winter. In the summer, there is some fog while temperatures reach 30°C (86° F). In the north of Peru, the coast is hot almost all year round, with a short rainy period in November and December. The central and southern coast has two distinct seasons, winter (April to October) and summer (November to March)
The Peruvian Andes mountain range dominates the landscape and contains various ecological regions and altitudes. The northern Andes are lower and more humid, while the central Andes are the tallest, and it is here where you find the country’s highest peak: Huascarán, at 6,768 meters above sea level. If true adventure appeals to you, then you may like to embark upon our Huascarán climbing adventure holiday, or perhaps even our complete Peru climbing tour. The southern Andes are wider, and are also known as The Altiplano, or High Andean Plateau. The Sierra has two seasons: summer and winter. In summer (April to October) there are sunny days, cold nights, and very little rain – this is the perfect time to visit. In winter (November to March), it rains heavily. During the day, temperatures can reach 24°C (75° F).
Located in the east, this is a vast region of plains covered by vegetation in the Amazon River, which begins at the confluence of the Marañón and Ucayali rivers. This region consists of highland jungle – often referred to as the mountain’s eyebrows, (over 700 meters above sea level). This region is characterized by its cloud forests, and lowland jungle (less than 700 meters above sea level). Like the Sierra, the jungle has two distinct seasons. From November to March it rains frequently, while from April to October it is fairly dry, making this the ideal time to visit as the rivers subside and the roads are easily accessible. There is high humidity all year round. Occasionally, between May and August, there are “friajes” or “surazos”, cold snaps caused by winds from the extreme south of the continent, during which the temperature can fall to between 8 and 12°C. (43° and 53° F).
Interested in taking your own trip to Peru? Explore our range of Peru tours and let us help you plan your perfect holiday in Peru
Gulliver Expeditions is a tour operator that offers unique Ecuador and Peru tours. Specialized in adventure travel such as climbing, mountain biking and horseback riding. We offer both pre-planned packages as well as tailor-made tours that can include the Amazon rainforest, once-in-a-lifetime Galapagos cruises and expeditions to Machu Picchu.